The account of the subject is the direct expression of what it tests, with what that has of groping, of unorganized and of confused. The clarification is the aspect at the same time most difficult and most effective of reformulation: it consists in clarifying and returning on the subject the direction even of what it says. 

Example (the subject): " My owner is a type literally stuffed with claims. There is only him which counts. There is only him which has something to say. As soon as it enters in scene, it monopolizes the conversation, I can say goodbye to everyone and me to go from there."

Answer : " the node of the problem, they is not so much the manners of your owner… it is the fact that its ways, in one way or another, touch you unfavourably, amount eliminating you." 

Response of the subject: " Here! " or: " You understood! ". 

The account of the subject is the direct expression of what it tests, with what that has of groping, 
here,the difficulty is to leave essence such as it is perceived by the person. The risk becomes great to make an interpretation. 

The clarification must remain strictly on the level of essence, it supposes consequently a fine intuition on behalf of the speaker, a capacity to draw with light what the subject often says in a confused and unorganized way. The practical application of the knowledge to listen and know to observe.

Reformulation-reflection with the reformulation-clarification. 

There is a clear progression of comprehension. The simple reflection is sometimes insufficient, though it has already a virtue. Indeed, it proves the centration of the attention on the subject and it is moreover, as a mirror, an objectified reflexion. What the person customer said, drawn from its characteristic lived, returns to him from outside and, if reformulation is good, it is well obliged to recognize itself there. This produced a reflexive impact which wakes up its clear conscience at the same time as it ensures of understanding listening.

Reformulation like new formulation has an effect of stronger shock. Without it being able to dispute the contents of the formula presented, the subject sees appearing a new direction with the same subjective data and it is in the center of this significance. 
With through the summary clearer than proposes the reformulation-clarification, it already aims at drawing from the whole of the expressed data one "essence-lived" that the subject recognizes like fundamental for him, though it never still formulated it this synthetic manner.

Echo with the clarification, a progress is thus apparent, it is appropriate to specify in what it consists, from the point of view of the person. 

The reformulation of the first kind returns its image out of mirror to him and it can be looked with a little more " distance ". The reformulation-clarification offers to him more: it puts the finger on a subjective essence that the subject tested like such (and it is by there that it can there be recognized) but which it inevitably did not manage to express clearly. 
De l'écho à la clarification, un progrès est donc apparent, il convient de préciser en quoi il consiste, du point de vue de la personne.

From this point of view, the reformulation-clarification can appear, with the first access, like an interpretation. It is perhaps the risk of any formulation of this kind, risks which precisely consists in being mistaken on what is essential or on what is additional, from the point of view of the person

If it is the lived essence which is actually placed in the center of the reformulation-clarification, it is undeniable that there is not only discovered interpretation but implicit essence.

The subject is really smelled understood and already helped. The first effect is an effect of revival, called effect-springboard, that the subject like is involved to more clarify what it has to say, starting from this new clearness. Very often, thereafter, you will discover things which you do not suppose, that you do not imagine, you will be with the true discovery of your subject.


The subject saw the problem or the situation, which generates two inevitable consequences :

- It is the only one to test all dimensions and all resonances of the situation.

- It is immersed in the situation and cannot take the retreat necessary to objectivity. 

So it has the feeling " to know " the situation, and it makes some knows it much more than whoever, but at the same time he of it is 
the prisoner. 

We are here in front of a psychological law which can be formulated in the following way: " in any situation which affectivement implies strongly a subject, its reflexion, far from giving access to objectivity, carries it on the contrary towards mental rumination or worms of the secondary rationalizations. " 

In other words, the freedom and the effectiveness of the reflexion are inversely proportional to the intensity of the emotional implication of the subject in a situation. 

It is necessary for us here much more clearly to differentiate still rumination and reflexion. One calls mental rumination a certain type of reflexion which consists in re-sifting the situation, either as a whole, or in its details, while always passing by again on the same points, or while establishing between the elements of the situation of the reports/ratios more or less fantasmatic or illusory. This mental rumination is the sign of an interior tension, it can take the obsessing character of an obsession, it on the spot constitutes a kind of trampling which, generally, worsens the situation by the fact even of this interior tension and this ressassement. 

The true reflexion, that of the reflected conscience, could be called vertical compared to the preceding one which would be then horizontal, in this that the true reflexion tends to discover the structure of the situation, to update its screen, to perceive the articulation of the significant elements as a whole lived, and, so leads at a sight objectifies related to a certain detachment and consequently already able to consider or bring an exit.

                                                                    Continuation : Effects of the application of the techniques.

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